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Woodcock-Johnson® III Tests of Achievement
Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement

Richard W. Woodcock, Kevin S. McGrew, and Nancy Mather

Type: Test of Achievement
Purpose: Measures academic achievement.
Ages: 2 to 90+ years
Times: Varies, about 5 minutes per test
Scoring: WJ III Compuscore® and Profiles Program and Report Writer allow you to score and report quickly and easily.

Product Support

Frequently Asked Questions

Scoring/Compuscore Questions

Q: Which tests or clusters will provide a CALP level and how do I get them to show up on my Compuscore report?
A: The following clusters will provide CALP levels if the examiner chooses CALP in the Additional Score Column under "Options" in the Compuscore for the WJ III. It will not provide CALP levels for individual tests unless that test is the cluster.
Cognitive Battery
  • Verbal Ability (std) -Test 1 Verbal Comprehension
  • Verbal Ability (ext) - Test 1 Verbal Comprehension and Test 11 General Information
  • Comprehension-Knowledge - Test 1 Verbal Comprehension and Test 11 General Information

Achievement Battery

  • Oral Language (std) - Test 3 Story Recall and Test 4 Understanding Directions
  • Oral Language (ext) - Test 3 Story Recall, Test 4 Understanding Directions, Test 14 Picture Vocabulary, and Test 15 Oral Comprehension
  • Oral Expression - Test 3 Story Recall and Test 14 Picture Vocabulary
  • Listening Comprehension - Test 4 Understanding Directions and Test 15 Oral Comprehension
  • Broad Reading - Test 1 Letter-Word Identification, Test 2 Reading Fluency, and Test 9 Passage Comprehension
  • Broad Written Language - Test 7 Spelling, Test 8 Writing Fluency, and Test 11 Writing Samples
  • Reading Comprehension - Test 9 Passage Comprehension, and Test 17 Reading Vocabulary
  • Written Expression - Test 8 Writing Fluency and Test 11 Writing Samples
  • Academic Knowledge - Test 19 Academic Knowledge

Q: When scoring Reading Fluency in the WJ III Tests of Achievement, why isn't the score calculated by subtracting the number correct from the number attempted? Because we score the test by subtracting the number incorrect from the number correct, it seems like students are being punished for guessing?
A: You are correct. This method of scoring reduces the "guess factor." Because Reading Fluency requires subjects to mark each item Yes or No, subjects can guess and have a 50 percent chance of getting the items correct. So the test is scored by evaluating the correct and incorrect responses within the range of attempted items. But because the norms are based on this procedure, subjects are not punished.

Q: How do you score false basals and ceilings?
A: There is only one true basal and one true ceiling. Therefore, you should use the lowest basal, or item #1, and the highest ceiling, or the last item. If a person appears to reach the ceiling in the middle of a page of items that have stimulus items on the subject’s side, but answers a question correctly while completing the page, then a true ceiling has not been met; continue administration. The purpose of basal and ceiling rules is to limit the span of items administered but still be able to estimate, with high probability, the score that would have been obtained if the subject had taken the entire test.

Q: I administered the WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities over two days. On the first day I entered a date in the Date of Testing field. On the second day, when I administered Visual-Auditory Learning (a test with a Date of Testing field), the WJ III Compuscore would not let me enter that day's date but kept defaulting to the first date of administration. Why?
A: The WJ III Compuscore is programmed so that all tests with date fields default to the first date of administration. You will need to enter the first date of administration in all date fields or change the date in the first Date of Testing field to match your second date of testing.
If you have to adjust the testing date for Visual-Auditory Learning and/or Story Recall, then remember to make sure to adjust the testing date for the delayed recall tests (Visual-Auditory Learning–Delayed and/or Story Recall–Delayed) also to maintain the correct delay interval. The software incorporates the delay time when calculating the predicted delayed recall score, so it is important that interval is correct.

Q: When using the Compuscore, I don't always get the PR/SS correspondence that I expect. For example, why did a reported percentile rank of 49 yield a standard score of 100? Shouldn't a standard score of 100 be equivalent to percentile rank of 50?
A: A standard score of 100 can, indeed, correspond to a percentile rank of 50. However, when numerically calculating PRs/SSs (as happens in the Compuscore), there will be a range of percentile ranks that yield a standard score of 100. This will be observed with other standard scores as well.
Reminder—The nature of a normal curve distribution results in percentile ranks being more exact than the standard scores in the middle ranges. At the tails of the distribution, the standard scores will be more exact than the percentile ranks.
The WJ III Compuscore carries the calculations to several decimal places, rounding to the reported integers only after all other calculations are complete. Standard scores from 99.5 to 100.5 will be reported as 100. The corresponding percentile ranks for these standard scores range from 48.67 to 51.33, which will be reported as 49 to 51. Here are a few examples of how this works:

99.5 48.67 100 49
100 49.99 100 50
100.5 51.33 100 51

When consulting printed tables that convert percentile ranks to standard scores, you will see a similar pattern—more than one percentile rank attached to a standard score. Sometimes, a table reports only one percentile rank for each standard score. In these cases, not every percentile rank is reported. For example-

47 99
50 100
53 101

Q: When I tried to enter the date of testing in the WJ III Compuscore, the numbers all ran together and wouldn't go into the month, day, and year fields correctly.
A: To complete any of the date fields in the scoring software, you must type in the month and the day as two-digit numbers and the year as a four-digit number. For example, if your date of testing is April 1, 2001, you would type 04/01/01.

Q: Do you have a Subject Data Record available for the WJ III like the one you provided in the WJ-R Compuscore binder?
A: Yes, please click the following .pdf file to get your copy of the Subject Data Record for the WJ III. You can make as many copies of this form as you need.

Q: When do I enter an X in the WJ III Compuscore and Profiles Program scoring software?
A: For tests that contain groups of items (Story Recall, Story Recall–Delayed, Understanding Directions, and Planning) enter the number of points (or errors) in the scoring software for each group of items you administer. Enter an X (not a zero) to indicate groups of items you did not administer. Do not enter an X in a test if you did not administer it. Simply skip over that test and leave it blank when entering data in the computer software program.

Q: How is a run-on sentence scored on Writing Samples?
A: If it is actually more than one sentence that has not been punctuated, score it as you would a multiple sentence response. If it is several clauses joined together by connecting words, try to find a main response and score that; often these responses are so disorganized that the meaning becomes distorted. This is your main concern.

Q: Do I penalize subjects for errors in spelling in the Writing Samples test?
A: Errors in spelling are not penalized unless specifically stated in the item criteria, or the examiner is unable to read and evaluate the response. If in doubt about how to evaluate a particular response, ask another adult without knowledge of the item content, such as a classroom teacher, to attempt to decipher the response. Spelling is evaluated in different tests within the battery.

Interpretation Questions

Q: Can an IQ score be derived from the WJ III?
A: Yes, when you administer the WJ III Tests of Cognitive Ability. The General Intellectual Ability Score (GIA), Standard or Extended Scale, when reported as a Standard Score (mean = 100, SD = 15), is the same as a full-scale IQ score. The Standard Scale GIA is comprised of 7 subtests, the Extended Scale GIA is comprised of 14 subtests. See page 12 in the Examiner's Manual for more information on the tests that comprise the GIA scores.

Q: What is an RPI?
A: The RPI (Relative Proficiency Index) is a score that predicts a subject's degree of proficiency in comparison to age or grade peers. It describes the quality of the performance or functionality. A subject's performance is compared to the point at which average students in the comparison group (either age or grade) would perform similar tasks with 90% proficiency. An RPI of 70/90 means a subject could be expected to demonstrate with 70% proficiency what an average student in the comparison group could perform with 90% proficiency.

Q: What is a T-score?
A: A T-score is a normalized standard score with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10.

Q: What is an NCE?
A: Normal Curve Equivalent (NCE) Scores are normalized standard scores with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 21.06. They are primarily used in Chapter 1 and other federal programs.

Q: What is a z-score?
A: A z-score is the normalized standard score that is the building block for all standard scores. It has a mean of 0.0 and a standard deviation of 1.0. To have adequate precision, z-scores are expressed to one or two decimal points. Scores below the mean are negative numbers.

Q: What scores are available for the tests and clusters?
A: Grade or Age Equivalents, Instructional Ranges, Relative Proficiency Indexes (RPIs), Standard Scores (Deviation Quotients), and Percentile Ranks are available for each test and cluster. The Compuscore for the WJ III has an additional column that allows the addition of one of the following scores: NCE, T-Score, z-score, age or grade equivalent, Stanine, or CALP level (for certain tests).

Q: Why are the AE's and GE's on the WJ III Test Records different than the scores on the Compuscore report?
A: Scores don't always match because the scoring tables on the WJ III Test Records use estimated scores. The scoring software calculates scores using additional available variables, such as time limits, test sections, age-equivalents, grade equivalents, and delay times, that cannot be built into the printed scoring tables. This is another reason for the WJ III to be computer-scored only.

Q: What is the difference in score between the 2-minute and the 7-minute version of Writing Fluency in the WJ III Test of Achievement?
A: Ideally this test should be given for the full 7-minute time limit. Examiners should only discontinue testing after 2 minutes if the subject has 3 or fewer items correct. The score the software calculates for a 2-minute sample is a  predicted estimate of how the subject would do if he or she were to test for 7 minutes.

Administration Questions

Q: On Test 21D, Sound Awareness: Reversal, the audio ends after Sample D. Is this a problem with my media?
A: Only the samples are presented on the audio media for this test. The examiner reads the items that follow. There is nothing wrong with your media.

Q: Must you give all of the tests on the WJ III?
A: No. The test was built on the idea of selective testing. Determine which areas you wish to measure, consult the Selective Testing Table on page 12 in the manual, and give only the tests needed. Make sure that you are giving all of the tests necessary to obtain the cluster scores you want.

Ordering Questions

Q: Can additional test books, manuals and software sets be purchased separately?
A: Yes, please contact our customer service department at 800.323.9540 ext. 6058.
Please click here to view the price listings

Q: Are the audio cassettes for the WJ III taped tests available on CD-ROM?
A: Yes

Q: Are there new editions of the interpretive resources for the WJ III?
A: Yes, three books, the Essentials of WJ III Tests of Achievement Assessment, the Essentials of WJ III Cognitive Abilities Assessment, and WJ III Recommendations and Reports are available now.

Q: Can I just preview the WJ III before I buy?
A: We can send you a couple of pieces of information on the WJ III, including both an informational piece and the WJ III Technical Abstract. These two pieces should answer most of your questions. Click here to e-mail your request to the Riverside Publishing Webmaster. Also, your local Riverside Publishing representative, would be glad to discuss the WJ III and how it could be beneficial with the clients you see. Click here to identify your representative by searching the on-line Sales Directory.

Miscellaneous Questions

Q: Is the WJ III very different from the WJ-R?
A: First, the WJ III has a larger normative sample of over 8,800 subjects for a more up-to-date comparison of scores. Second, there are new tests on both the Tests of Achievement and the Tests of Cognitive Abilities. Third, we have included scoring software with each kit that will run on either a Macintosh computer or a computer that has Windows. The new WJ III cannot be hand-scored, due to the complicated nature of the scoring procedure and scoring weights.

Q: Why can't the WJ III be hand-scored?
A: You can still obtain an estimated age-equivalent or grade-equivalent score using the tables on the WJ III record form, but you will not be able to convert raw scores without running the computer program. The authors felt it necessary to offer the battery with computer-scoring only, as many of the derived scores are weighted and hand-scoring would lead to complications and errors. This is also why the computer programs are included with each kit, and are provided on both disk and CD-ROM for use with Macintosh and Windows computers.

Q: What are the qualifications necessary to administer the WJ III?
A: The authors of the WJ III and Riverside Publishing have put together a statement of qualifications for administering the WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities. To view the statement of qualifications for the WJ III Tests of Achievement, please click here, and for WJ III Cognitive Abilities please click here.
Q: What type of training do we need?
A: You will need to spend some time with the WJ III Examiner's Manual and Examiner Workbook. You will need to study carefully the administration guidelines and scoring procedures. It is recommended that you conduct a practice administration or two before giving the WJ III to a client, to ensure your comfort level with the instrument. Two other types of resources are available to you — Private Training programs and a Self-Study Training CD. Please visit our Training Page.

Q: How much is private training?
A: Private training is recommended if your group is 20 or more, as the cost is typically between $1500-2000 for a full day of training on the WJ III. This includes cost of hiring a trainer recommended and trained by Riverside Publishing and the WJ III authors, and the expenses of having that trainer to your location. Click here for more information on private training.

Q: Is the WJ-R now obsolete?
A: The WJ-R is not obsolete, but you need to check your state regulations concerning the age of norms, as the WJ-R norms are now more than 10 years old.

Q: How can the Bateria-III be used with the WJ III?
A: The Bateria III is equated with the WJ III.  You can use the Bateria III in conjunction with the WJ III to obtain more comprehensive information of bilingual subjects.

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